по небото темно златестите зракои ,
штом сонцето тргне проблеснато , чисто
по пресните следи на ноќта и мракот ,
езерните далги во утринен блесок
го гушкаат милно крајбрежниот песок
- тогаш дојди в Охрид “ ...
Ohrid-Soul of Macedonia
Ohrid, the ancient Lichnidos is one of the oldest cities on the Balkan Peninsula with a rich natural and cultural heritage left by numerous civilisations.
Spread by the shores of the wonderful lake,at the foothills of the National Park Galicica,Ohrid is a town where every step leads you to evidences of the rich Macedonian history.The town that once had 365 churches-one for each day in the year-preserved a large number of them to this very day.That's why Ohrid is known as Macedonian Jerusalem.
The exceptionally favorable geografic location together with the other attractive natural circumstances, enable continuous life in this region from the dawns of human civilisation through the prehistoric and historic eras,to this very day.
From the prehistoric times are lake dwelling settlements near the tourist camp Gradiste ,the fortress with the Cyclopean walls from the times of Philip and Alexander of Macedon; from the antiquty times is the Antique Teater located in the middle of old city.
The christianity spreads very early in Ohrid and it is linked with the Bishop of Antioch-Erasmus who had christened thousands people.To him is dedicated in 3rd and 4th century,an early christian basilica as well as medieval cave church from the 13 century where his image is painted.
During the 9th and 10th centuries Ohrid became the centre of the Slavic literacy, St. Clement of Ohrid established the first university of the Balkans through which 3500 students were trained and they spread Slavic culture and literacy in the entire Slavic world.
In the second half of 10 century Ohrid became the capital of the state of King Samoil. It also became seat of patriarchy. Samoil during his four decades long rule has expanded the Macedonian state from the rivers Danube and Sava , to the Corintian Bay and Adriatic Sea .
The medieval art creation in Macedonia and in Ohrid as well,according to the general features belongs to Byzantine fine arts aesthetics. But our byzantine pantiing in its higest achivments and accomplishments is equal to the peak achivments of the Byzantine arts. It is expressed through the following elements:accentuated tendency for more realistic approach-especially in the depiction of the Biblical events: the introduction of dramatic and joyous elements from everyday life; the particular colorist expression, the elements of which result in the linkage of the native soil and the feel of color;the playful drawings that reflect the Slavic mentality of the creator of the works of art.
The further development was discontinued by the fall of Macedonia under the rule of the Otoman empire.The generaly unfavorable historic circumstances have led this art to be a subject to a constant process of degradation.The historical circumstances have imposed the isolation of our national region from the general currents of the European culture.
he consolidation of the trade and crafts provide for economic prosperity, hich leads to the revival movments in Macedonia, from the beginning of the 19th century onwards.Among the activities an important place is taken by the portrait and fresco painting made in newly built churches,that enables establishment of new ateliers and traveling artists companies ( tajfi).
The Lake Ohrid
The most beautiful blue pearl of the Balkans can be seen in the Struga-Ohrid valley.It is between 4-10 milion years old. Ohrid Lake is Europe 's oldest lake and it is amongst the oldest in the world.It is a tectonic lake that came being in the tertiary period and it is one of the very few lakes in the world that originate from before the last glacial period .
Lake Ohrid is situated on 41 degree nothern altitude and 20-21 degrees estern logitude and its altitude is 695 meters above sea level . It covers an area of 358.2 square kilometers,two third of which belong to R. of Macedonia and the rest to the R. of Albania. The shoreline is 87.5 kilometers long. The maximum length being 30.8 kilometers and it's maximum widht is 14.8 kilometers. The average depth is 164 meters and the maximum depth is 289 meters. Lake Ohrid is the seventh deepest lake in Europe.The temperature of the water changes depending of the serason,so in August it may warm up to 26 degrees,and no matter how cold it becomes it never freezes.The water of Ohrid Lake is among the clearest and purest in Europe.In July it is transparent at a depth of 21.5 m.
The lake is primarily supplied from numerous surface and underground springs.Most of the surface springs lie along the soutern shore and there are also about 40 rivers and springs that flow into the lake.Also it is supposed that the water from the adjacent Lake Prespa with a water level 158 meters higer sinks through the porose areas of the mountain Galicica and come to Ohrid Lake. Lake Ohrid is known as "The museum of living fossils" because of the great number of endemic and relict forms.There are also 17 autochthonous species,among which famous are the two endemic trout species:Ohrid Trout and Belvica,and there are also the European Eel and Plasica-a small fish that is used as a food,and the famous Ohrid Pearl is produced from its scales.